MySQL TDE: Online key store migration

So, if we’re applying GDPR to our system, and we’re already making use of MySQL Transparent Data Encryption / keyring, then here’s an example on how to migrate from filed-based keyring to the encrypted keyring. Online.

If you’re looking to go deeper into the TDE then I suggest reading the MySQL Server Team’s InnoDB Transparent Tablespace Encryption blog.

You’d already have your environment running, whereas I have to create one.. give me a minute please, 8.0.12 here we come:

mysqld --defaults-file=my_okv.cnf --initialize-insecure --user=khollman
mysqld --defaults-file=my_okv.cnf --user=khollman &

mysql --defaults-file=my_okv.cnf -uroot
show plugins;
show variables like 'keyring%';
alter user 'root'@'localhost' identified by 'oracle';

create database nexus;
create table nexus.replicant (id INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT ,
`First name` varchar(40) not null default '',
`Last name` varchar(40) not null default '',
`Replicant` enum('Yes','No') not null default 'Yes',
PRIMARY KEY (id)) engine=InnoDB row_format=COMPACT ENCRYPTION = 'Y';

INSERT INTO nexus.`replicant` (`First name`,`Last name`,`Replicant`)
('Roy','Hauer','Yes'), ('Rutger','Batty','Yes'), ('Voight','Kampff','Yes'), ('Pris','Hannah','Yes'), ('Daryl','Stratton','Yes'), ('Rachael','Young','Yes'), ('Sean','Tyrell','Yes'), ('Rick','Ford','No'), ('Harrison','Deckard','Yes');

select * from nexus.replicant;

Now we have an environment using the keyring file-based TDE.

Before migrating the key store, there are a few things we need to be aware of, as well as reading the manual on this topic:

  • mysqld. Yes, we start up another mysqld process, but it’s not a fully functioning server, far from it. It is just a means to migrate the keys from the old file-based  to the new encrypted file. So don’t worry about the defaults-file, the innodb_xxxx params nor anything else. We actually need to reuse the existing datadir.
  • datadir. As just mentioned, don’t try and use another datadir as it won’t find any files there to encrypt with the new key and the process won’t be successful. Use the existing online server datadir. (of course, I recommend this process be run in a non-production test environment first!)
  • -source & -destination. I think this is quite obvious.  The plugin we’re coming from, and going to.
  • keyring_file_data is the existing file-based keyring being used.
  • keyring_encrypted_file_data & _password is the new encrypted password being stored in its file in this location.
  • keyring-migration- params. We need to connect to the existing instance with super user privs. As it’s locally to the instance, we can use -socket.


mysqld --basedir=/usr/local/mysql/mysql-commercial-8.0.12-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64 \
 --plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/mysql-commercial-8.0.12-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/lib/plugin \
 --lc_messages_dir=/usr/local/mysql/mysql-commercial-8.0.12-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/share \
 --datadir=/opt/mysql/okv/data \ \
 --keyring_file_data=/opt/mysql/okv/keyring \ \
 --keyring_encrypted_file_data=/opt/mysql/okv/keyring_enc \
 --keyring_encrypted_file_password=oracle2018 \
 --keyring-migration-socket=/opt/mysql/okv/mysql.socket \
 --keyring-migration-user=root \

And if, only if, the migration is successful, you should see output like the following. Anything else, i.e. if no output comes back, or some of the lines don’t appear in your scenario, double check the parameters in the previous command as it’s more than likely impeding a successful key migration somewhere:

2018-10-08T11:26:22.227161Z 0 [Note] [MY-010098] [Server] --secure-file-priv is set to NULL. Operations related to importing and exporting data are disabled
2018-10-08T11:26:22.227219Z 0 [Note] [MY-010949] [Server] Basedir set to /usr/local/mysql/mysql-commercial-8.0.12-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/.
2018-10-08T11:26:22.227226Z 0 [System] [MY-010116] [Server] mysqld (mysqld 8.0.12-commercial) starting as process 13758
2018-10-08T11:26:22.254234Z 0 [Note] [MY-011085] [Server] Keyring migration successful.
2018-10-08T11:26:22.254381Z 0 [Note] [MY-010120] [Server] Binlog end
2018-10-08T11:26:22.254465Z 0 [Note] [MY-010733] [Server] Shutting down plugin 'keyring_encrypted_file'
2018-10-08T11:26:22.254642Z 0 [Note] [MY-010733] [Server] Shutting down plugin 'keyring_file'
2018-10-08T11:26:22.255757Z 0 [System] [MY-010910] [Server] mysqld: Shutdown complete (mysqld 8.0.12-commercial) MySQL Enterprise Server - Commercial.



To make sure the instance has the new parameters in the defaults file, and before any risk of restarting the instance, we’ll need to add the new ‘encrypted’ params to the my.cnf:

plugin_dir =/usr/local/mysql/mysql-commercial-8.0.12-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/lib/plugin
#keyring_file_data =/opt/mysql/okv/keyring
keyring_encrypted_file_data =/opt/mysql/okv/keyring_enc
keyring_encrypted_file_password =oracle2018


And upon the next most convenient / least inconvenient moment, restart the instance:

mysqladmin --defaults-file=/usr/local/mysql/mysql-commercial-8.0.12-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/my_okv.cnf -uroot -poracle shutdown
mysqld --defaults-file=/usr/local/mysql/mysql-commercial-8.0.12-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/my_okv.cnf --user=khollman &

And let’s double check which keyring plugin we’re using:

select * from information_schema.plugins where plugin_name like '%keyring%' \G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
PLUGIN_NAME: keyring_encrypted_file
PLUGIN_AUTHOR: Oracle Corporation
PLUGIN_DESCRIPTION: store/fetch authentication data to/from an encrypted file
1 row in set (0,00 sec)

And also that we can select the data from the encrypted tablespace:

select * from nexus.replicant;
| id | First name | Last name | Replicant |
| 1 | Roy         | Hauer     | Yes       |
| 2 | Rutger      | Batty     | Yes       |
| 3 | Voight      | Kampff    | Yes       |
| 4 | Pris        | Hannah    | Yes       |
| 5 | Daryl       | Stratton  | Yes       |
| 6 | Rachael     | Young     | Yes       |
| 7 | Sean        | Tyrell    | Yes       |
| 8 | Rick        | Ford      | No        |
| 9 | Harrison    | Deckard   | Yes       |
9 rows in set (0,00 sec)


Seems quite straight forward.

Well how about, in a test environment, changing the keyring_encrypted_file_password value to something different now, and restart the instance, and run the same select on the same table.

Hey presto:

select * from nexus.replicant;
ERROR 3185 (HY000): Can't find master key from keyring, please check in the server log if a keyring plugin is loaded and initialized successfully.
Error (Code 3185): Can't find master key from keyring, please check in the server log if a keyring plugin is loaded and initialized successfully.
Error (Code 1877): Operation cannot be performed. The table 'nexus.replicant' is missing, corrupt or contains bad data.


Hope this helps someone out there. Enjoy encrypting!

Now we can run encrypted backups safely and not worry about moving those files around different systems now.

This entry was posted in Backup, GDPR, MEB, MySQL, MySQL 8, MySQL Enterprise Backup, MySQL Enterprise Edition, Oracle, TDE, Uncategorized and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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